Who is Atatürk? Biography

Who is Atatürk? Biography

Who is Mustafa Kemal Atatürk? Atatürk's life.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938), leader of the War of Independence, founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey. He was born in 1881 in Thessaloniki, Macedonia, within the borders of the Ottoman Empire. Her mother, Zübeyde Hanım, was a devout housewife. His father Ali Rıza Efendi, on the other hand, served as a clerk of the foundations and customs officer, and for a short time he joined the battalion of Asakir-i Milliye, which was established by volunteers. Ali Rıza Efendi, who resigned due to his inability to get along with what he earned from civil service, went bankrupt when he failed and died when he was 47 years old.

There were serious differences between Ali Rıza Efendi and his wife regarding the future of Mustafa. Zübeyde Hanım wanted little Mustafa to become a cleric in the future, so she resisted her going to the neighborhood school. Ali Rıza Efendi, on the other hand, wanted his son to go to Şemsi Efendi School, which was newly opened and provided modern education. Finally, Ali Rıza Efendi found a suitable solution to the problem and ended the discussion. Mustafa first started the neighborhood school with the usual ceremony where the hymns were read. “So her mother's request was fulfilled. A few days later, he left the neighborhood school and entered the Şemsi Efendi School.

Mustafa, who got used to his new school in a short time, hugged his lessons with great enthusiasm. However, after the death of Ali Rıza Efendi, Zübeyde Hanım, who was in trouble, was forced to go to her brother who was a housekeeper at a farm near Thessaloniki. Thus, Mustafa, whose education was interrupted, started to help his uncle in the farm works. His uncle had given him the duty to chase the crows that were put in the field with his brother Makbule. Mustafa had no complaints about his farm life, but his education was interrupted, making his mother very sad. Finally, it was decided to go to his aunt in Thessaloniki and go to school there. Here he enrolled in the secondary school (the department of the High School). However, he could not stay in this school for a long time. The heavy beating he ate from his Arabic teacher because of a fight with a friend caused him to leave school. Actually, Mustafa didn't like this school very much. Ataturk's eye was dazzling his officers, who wandered in the streets of Thessaloniki in their uniforms with their swords slamming. He had decided to become an officer. Finally, he took the first step into the military service by winning the exams of the Thessaloniki Military High School (middle school), which he secretly entered from his mother.

Military Training

Mustafa, who had a regular education in Thessaloniki Military High School, which he started in 1893, gave himself to his lessons with great desire. He was a successful student, but he had a great interest in mathematics, and this interest was increasing day by day. This situation caught the attention of mathematics teacher Mustafa Sabri. One day, the teacher taught this skill of his student, “My son is Mustafa and I am your name. This will not be so. There must be a difference between us. Let your name be Mustafa Kemal from now on. ” he said, rewarded. Mustafa Kemal, who completed the Military High School, was written to the Monastery Military High School (high school) with the suggestion of his teachers in 1895. After successfully completing this school in 1898, he entered the infantry class of the Military Academy (Mekteb-i Harbiye) in Istanbul on March 18, 1899. During his military years, Mustafa Kemal acquired a wide intellectual environment. The increasing pressure of the Abdulhamid administration was causing reactions to it. His interest in libertarian ideas increased day by day, and despite all the dangers, he was reading the banned books of Namık Kemal and newspapers from abroad. Mustafa Kemal, who was successful in his lessons during the war school years, graduated from the school on February 10, 1902 and became a lieutenant and moved to the Erkân-ı Harbiye (today's Harbiye Academy) class.

Mustafa Kemal was also very successful in his lessons. However, he was now involved in political activities as well as his lessons. Abdülhamit's repressive rule and foreign countries' reaction against the interference of the state's internal affairs. Several friends who shared the same views in those days started to publish a secret newspaper reflecting their thoughts of freedom. This newspaper, which was reproduced in handwriting, called out to all the students of Harbiye and traveled from hand to hand. Most of the writings were written by Mustafa Kemal.

On January 11, 1905, Mustafa Kemal finished the Military Academy with the rank of staff captain. While he was waiting for his order, he did not stay idle and continued his political work. During the meetings they held in a room with their friends, they were discussing among themselves and reading banned publications. But when they reported an old friend, they were caught and arrested. Mustafa Kemal, who was released a few months later, was appointed to the 30th Cavalry Regiment attached to the 5th Army in Damascus.

First Years in Officer

His mission in Damascus enabled Mustafa Kemal to see the problems of the army and the country closely. Mustafa Kemal, who participated in the movement against Druze in Havran and Kuneytra, traveled almost all over Syria. Meanwhile, due to his political views, he founded the Homeland and Freedom Society in October 1906 with Mustafa Bey (Cantekin), who was discharged from the last class of Military Medicine and exiled to Damascus. He tried to spread the organization in Jerusalem, Haifa and Jaffa (Tel Aviv), where he went, but he was not successful. Thereupon, he secretly moved to Thessaloniki and started to organize activities here. He established the Salonika branch of the organization by establishing a relationship with his old friends. However, he returned to Syria four months later after his studies were informed and an investigation was opened.

In June 1907, he was promoted to his cola (front face) and 5. He was assigned to the army general staff. After a while, he was appointed to the 3rd Army General Staff in Thessaloniki at his request. In those years, there was an intense political activity in Macedonia. The Committee of Union and Progress Association, which was established by progressive young officers, was increasing day by day. Mustafa Kemal, who came to Thessaloniki, saw that his friends who made up the Homeland and Freedom Association passed to the Committee of Union and Progress. At first, he joined the ranks of Union and Progress on October 29, 1907, at the insistence of his old friends, although he started to develop the Vatan and Hürriyet Society.
On July 23, 1908, II. The Constitutional Monarchy was declared and the 1876 Constitution (Kanun-ı Esasi) started to be implemented again. Nowadays, differences of opinion began to appear between Mustafa Kemal and the top executives of the Committee of Union and Progress. Almost everywhere he was criticizing the rulers of the society without bothering his word. In addition, II. After the announcement of the Constitutional Monarchy, the friction between them was increasing with Enver Bey, who was declared as the "Hero of Freedom".
The community directors are aiming to get him away from Thessaloniki. They sent it to Tripoli, under the pretext of suppressing the movements against the constitutional rule. The 31 March Uprising broke out in Istanbul when he completed his mission here and returned to Thessaloniki. The Movement Army, under the command of Mahmut Şevket Pasha, was sent to Istanbul to suppress this uprising. Mustafa Kemal was initially appointed as the chief of staff of this army, but when he was to enter Istanbul, Enver Bey was replaced by this task.

Mustafa Kemal continued his criticism in the Committee of Union and Progress by hardening. The society gathered in September 1909 II. At his congress, he advocated the withdrawal of soldiers from politics or the separation of soldiers from the army. Although this view found some supporters, it remained in the minority. Upon this, Mustafa Kemal cut himself from the Ittihat ve Terakki and gave himself to the military service completely. In April 1910, he worked as a training officer in the 3rd Army. The success of the Prime Minister Mustafa Kemal in this task and the army staff attracted everyone's attention.

Towards World War I, the Balkans were like a powder keg ready to explode. Balkan peoples who wanted their independence were constantly revolting with the provocation of the great states. The Minister of War (Minister of War) Mahmut Şevket Pasha undertook the suppression of an uprising in Albania in 1910. While Pasha passed through Thessaloniki, he took Mustafa Kemal with him and made him the chief of staff of his troops. In the autumn of the same year, Mustafa Kemal participated in military maneuvers in Picardie in France as the representative of the Ottoman army.

After a while, Mustafa Kemal was appointed to a post in Istanbul under the chief of general staff. Meanwhile, Italians were attacked to invade Tripoli. Mustafa Kemal reached Tobruk after having a hard journey through Egypt. He succeeded in the staff of the forces here, in the Tobruk Clash in January 1912. Then he went to Derne and took over the command of the forces there. Mustafa Kemal, who was promoted to major in Tripoli, returned to Istanbul after the First Balkan War started in October 1912.

During the war, he was appointed as the Operations Branch of the forces responsible for ensuring the security of the Dardanelles. Then, the Bolayır Corps staff chief was given to him. Balkan Wars resulted in destruction for the empire. As all the lands in the Balkans were lost, the army fell into a miserable state.

Mustafa Kemal, who was appointed to Sofia military attaché in October 1913, was promoted to lieutenant colonel in March 1914. During his mission in Sofia, he observed the subtleties of western diplomacy. In the letters and reports he sent to Istanbul from here, he informed that a war was coming, and that the Ottoman Empire's entry into this war would result in a disaster. According to Mustafa Kemal, the Ottomans should have remained neutral in this war. He emphasized that going to war next to Germany would result in disaster because Germany would be defeated because he would have to fight on both fronts.

The First World War Years

World War I, which started on July 28, 1914, when Austria declared war on Serbia, soon covered the whole of Europe. The Committee of Union and Progress signed a friendship and cooperation agreement with Germany on August 2, 1914, just six days later, and prepared the prerequisites for joining the Ottoman Empire to the war. Finally, on October 29, 1914, the Ottomans entered the war alongside Germany and Austria.

Although he did not approve the Ottoman Empire's participation in the war and the army under the control of German officers, Mustafa Kemal returned to the country to take a military duty. In February 1915, he was appointed to the 19th Division Command established in Tekirdağ. In a short time, he completed the deficiencies of the 19th Division and came to Maydos on the Gallipoli Peninsula. He undertook the command of the region, which includes the port of Arıburnu, Anafartalar and Ece.

The British and the French, who wanted to take over the Dardanelles, took troops to the Seddülbahir and Arıburnu regions of the Gallipoli Peninsula on April 25, 1915. The advancement of enemy soldiers was stopped by the efforts of Mustafa Kemal and pushed back to the shore. Mustafa Kemal was promoted to colonel (miralay) on June 1 and was appointed as Arıburnu Front Command. He was appointed to the Anafartalar Front Group Command in August and did not allow the strong British and French navy to pass through the Dardanelles.

Çanakkale Wars was a turning point in the life of Mustafa Kemal. Mustafa Kemal, who gained a great reputation by proving his command ability inside and outside the country, was brought to the 16th Corps Command in Edirne in January 1916. He was sent to the east with his corps in February and was promoted to brigadier general on 1 April. During this mission, Mustafa Kemal stopped the advance of the Russians and took back Mus and Bitlis. In late 1916, he was appointed deputy commander of the 2nd Army. They met with Colonel İsmet Bey (İnönü), the chief of staff of this army, for the first time and became friends.

Meanwhile, the Committee of Union and Progress pursued new dreams. They wanted to establish an army called Hicaz Kuvve-i Seferiyesi and give its command to Mustafa Kemal. Their aim was to save the holy places. Mustafa Kemal did not accept this task after going to Damascus and examining the situation. Thereupon, the army was discouraged from the establishment; Mustafa Kemal returned to the eastern front and became the commander of the 2nd Army.
Yıldırım Army Group was established under the command of German General Falkenhayn in order to take back Baghdad and Iraq. In July 1917, he was appointed to the 7th Army Command affiliated with Mustafa Kemal Yıldırım Armies Group. But in this post, he could not agree with Falkenhayn, who looked after the German interests in his relations with the tribes in the region, guarding the German officers under his command. Mustafa Kemal took the opinions of the 3rd Arm Army Commander İsmet Bey and reported the situation to the commander-in-chief and Grand Vizier Talat Pasha with a report. When the report was not adopted, he left his duty and came to Istanbul.

German Emperor II in late 1917. He participated in the trip as a child of the Crown Vahideddin, who went to Germany to visit Wilhelm. Along the way, he transferred his thoughts to the sultan of the future. While returning home, he was disturbed and went to Vienna and Karlsbad for treatment. Meanwhile, Sultan Sultan Reşat died, throne VI. Mehmed Vahideddin was out. Vahideddin invited Mustafa Kemal to Istanbul a few days after he came to the throne. Benefiting from this situation, Mustafa Kemal met with the sultan several times, but was not effective. Because Vahideddin was under the influence of Enver and Talat pashas in a short time. Finally, Mustafa Kemal went to Syria for the second time by accepting the 7th Army Command under the command of the Yıldırım von Group, under the command of Liman von Sanders in Palestine.

The British, who completed their preparations, attacked on this front with their superior forces on September 18-19, 1918. The 7th Army, under the command of Mustafa Kemal, withdrew from stopping the first attacks and was positioned in the north of Aleppo. He stopped the British and Arab forces who attacked on 25-26 October and defeated them. However, the war was completely lost. On October 30, 1918, the Mondros Armistice was signed and the Ottoman Empire withdrew from the war. On the same date, Mustafa Kemal was appointed to the Lightning Armies Group Command. During this new mission, he constantly telegraphed Istanbul to clarify the articles of the armistice. Because the British were getting ready to occupy Iskenderun by taking advantage of these articles. Mustafa Kemal declared that he would resist this occupation and dismiss him if the government in Istanbul thinks the opposite. Meanwhile, he distributed weapons to people in Antep and Maraş region against possible invasions and attacks. In November 1918, when the Yıldırım Ordu Group was removed, he returned to Istanbul.

In occupied Istanbul

Mustafa Kemal, who got off the train in Haydarpaşa on 13 November 1918, faced the entrance of Istanbul by pulling the victory flags of the enemy ships. Mustafa Kemal, who was very angry with this view, said to his sad son, "They go as they came".

Mustafa Kemal was trying to establish a relationship with anyone who was at work or had an active place in political life. He was trying to get to know them during his meetings and wanted to understand if they could be trusted. In his speeches with the sultan, he suggested that a new government be formed and suggested that he be the war minister, but he could not achieve any results. On the other hand, Damat Ferit Pasha was appointed as the Grand Vizier and former Unionist leaders began to be arrested.

The most productive talks of Mustafa Kemal in Istanbul were with his old gunmates. These would later form the leading cadres of the War of Independence. The house he kept in Şişli became a center where preparations for the War of Independence were made. During the meetings, Kâzım (Karabekir), İsmet (İnönü), Refet (Bele), Ali Fuat (Cebesoy), Rauf (Orbay) and Fethi (Okyar) were looking for solutions to the problem. Especially Kâzım Bey advocated running the struggle from there by passing to Anatolia. Mustafa Kemal was also beginning to adopt this idea. It turned out that there was no possibility to save the country from Istanbul. But Mustafa Kemal wanted his transition to Anatolia with a certain authority and duty. A good opportunity to provide this opportunity soon appeared. The Greeks in and around Samsun were in an attempt to establish an independent Greek Pontos State. This situation disturbed the Turks and caused conflicts to arise. The Damat Ferit government appointed Mustafa Kemal Pasha as the 9th Army inspector in the region against the threat of intervention by invading states by the Greeks. Thus, Mustafa Kemal was equipped with the authority to control a wide area and to give orders to the governors and commanders here. He made his last meetings with the sultan, grand vizier and his friends in Istanbul and moved to Samsun on the 16th of May 1919, one day after the invasion of İzmir. Mustafa Kemal's life on May 19 in Turkey will last until 1923 with the arrival in Samsun was beginning a new period of struggle.

The Path to Independence

The Armistice Armistice signed by the Ottoman Empire, defeated by the First World War, contained very severe conditions. In the days following the armistice, a great merging took place within the empire. Entente states were breaking the conditions of armistice and Anatolia was shared and occupied. On the other hand, in the days following the declaration of the armistice, Müdafaa-i Hukuk organizations started to be established all over the country. There was a noticeable liveliness in this regard, especially in the regions where enemy occupation was expected. Instead of organizing an armed struggle, these organizations tended to enlighten and influence the world public opinion, thus protecting the integrity of the country. The idea of ​​resistance started to gain power after the occupation of İzmir by the Greeks. Those who resisted the advance of the Greek army in İzmir region were called “Kuva-yı Milliye” (National Forces). This name gradually encompassed all movements that fought national liberation.

Mustafa Kemal went to Samsun at a time when such power days were experienced. He thought that the only solution was to establish an independent Turkish state based on national sovereignty. He immediately began working to implement this view, which he summarized with the slogan “either independence or death”. Starting from the day he went to Samsun, he established a communication network with military-civilian senior officials in Anatolia. By sending a secret declaration to the nationalist organizations in Anatolia, he requested that rallies be held against the occupations and an intense gang war against the enemy attack. In his declaration (Amasya Tamimi) published in Amasya on 21-22 June, he declared that the government in Istanbul could not perform his duty and that national integrity and the future were in danger. He stressed that the independence of the nation will save the nation's final decision and resistance, and that it is imperative to create a national board that is free from all kinds of influence and control in order to make the voice of the nation known to the world. For this, he suggested convening a congress in Sivas, the safest place in Anatolia.

Amasya Tamimi and Mustafa Kemal called for not complying with the provisions of the Mondros Armistice and openly opposed the Istanbul government. He left his military service on July 8 when he asked the Harbiye Minister to return to Istanbul. The next day, he was elected as the chairman of the Erzurum Defense Law Society. At the Erzurum Congress, which he gathered on July 23, it was decided that the territory within the borders of the country is an inseparable whole, that a temporary government will be established against the foreign occupation of the country, and when the Istanbul government is insufficient to fulfill this task. A representative board of nine people (Heyet-i Temsiliye) was elected. In Sivas Congress, which was held between 4-11 September, the decisions of Erzurum Congress were fully adopted. The Anatolian and Rumelia Defense Law Society was established, and the delegation was given the authority to represent the whole country. The main lines of Misak-ı Milli were determined and it was emphasized that a regression from the borders of 30 October 1919 would not be possible.

Although the Istanbul government tried to prevent Erzurum and Sivas congresses, it was not successful. During the meeting held in Amasya between the representative of this government and Mustafa Kemal on October 18, it was decided to hold free elections to convene a new assembly in Istanbul. Mustafa Kemal was elected as the deputy of Erzurum on 7 November 1919. Meanwhile, Mustafa Kemal went to Ankara on December 27, 1919, since it was decided that the headquarters of the Delegation was Ankara.

The newly elected Ottoman Mebusan Assembly gathered in Istanbul on January 12, 1920 and started its work. On January 28, 1920, the parliament made a decision stating how to act for the liberation of the country. Parliament declared this decision, which Mustafa Kemal set out, in the form of an oath. In this decision called Misak-ı Milli, the occupation and sharing of Anatolia was rejected. In the face of this situation, the Entente States occupied Istanbul on March 16, 1920. The sessions were suspended after the assembly was pressed by the occupation forces.

Mustafa Kemal announced on 19 March that a parliament with extraordinary powers will be established in Ankara with a declaration he published as the chairman of the delegation. This council was to form the MPs who passed from Istanbul to Anatolia with the newly elected deputies. Finally, on 23 April 1920 in Ankara, Turkey Grand National Assembly was convened and it was decided that no power on the council recognition. Legislative and executive duties of self collects first Grand National Assembly of Turkey was elected to the presidency of Mustafa Kemal formed a new government.

Meanwhile, the Greeks were advancing in Western Anatolia. Mustafa Kemal gathered his forces against the enemy in a scattered way, forming a regular army. The riots in various parts of Anatolia were suppressed and first I and II. The Greeks were defeated in the wars of İnönü (January and April 1921). In the Battle of Sakarya, which started on August 23, 1921 and lasted for 22 days and 22 nights, the Greek army was sprayed and thrown to the west of the Sakarya River. This victory in Sakarya enabled important steps to be taken in foreign relations as well. The Treaty of Kars (13 October 1921) and the Ankara Treaty with France (20 October 1921) were signed with Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan through the USSR.

Mustafa Kemal, who decided to strike the last blow to the enemy in mid-June 1922, started the big offensive on the morning of 26 August. The enemy was completely defeated in the Commander-in-Chief Battle in August 30.

The Mudanya Armistice Treaty was signed on October 11, 1922, after the Great Assault and Commander-in-Field Battle ended with victory. This gets rid of the enemy occupation of treaty countries, Eastern Thrace, the Aegean, he was passing through the straits of Istanbul and Turkey again. The work to be done now was left to ensure that the world states recognize the new Turkish state by signing a treaty that will make peace permanent. After victory in the battlefields, a new struggle in diplomacy was attempted in Lausanne.

Towards the Republic

Following the signing of the Mudanya Armistice Treaty, the preparations for the Lausanne peace talks started. These were found in 27 of the Entente a note is given in October peace talks with the government of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey in Istanbul call to join the government. Their aim was to weaken the Turkish side in the negotiations. national struggle by trying to prevent collaboration with the enemy during the War of Independence and its government sultan in Istanbul, Turkey, knowing that the opportunity offered peace talks on cooperation in the Grand National Assembly.

Faced with this situation, Mustafa Kemal, Turkey has proposed the abolition of the caliphate and sultanate sultanate leaving the Grand National Assembly. In his speech at the parliament, he emphasized that the Turkish nation has now established its own independent state and will never accept monarchic rule. After this speech, the law regarding the abolition of the sultanate was accepted unanimously in the Assembly on 1 November 1922 and the sultanate was terminated. This is the rule of law and the sovereignty of the Turkish nation and transferred the Grand National Assembly of Turkey was determined to represent a legal entity and in a manner indispensable. The sovereignty-based Istanbul government was ignored after March 16, 1920, when Istanbul was occupied. Caliphate as the Ottoman dynasty, dynasty members the most suitable in terms of knowledge and character will be chosen caliph was stated by Turkey Grand National Assembly. The last Ottoman Sultan VI. The Grand National Assembly of Turkey Mehmet Vahideddin escape from Istanbul on November 17 chose him instead of taking the reigns of the caliphate next day.

Mustafa Kemal went on a country trip on 13 January 1923 to observe how the public met the abolition of the sultanate. Meanwhile, his long-ill mother Zübeyde Hanım was buried in Karşıyaka Cemetery, who died in Izmir. Mustafa Kemal, who went to İzmir on January 27, visited the grave of his mother. On 29 January, she married Latife Hanım, whom she met on her first visit to İzmir. In the meantime, he opened the Economic Congress, which convened in Izmir to determine the economic policies to be followed by the new Turkish state, on 17 February with a speech.

April 1, 1923, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey has decided to conduct new elections. After the elections of August 11, 1923 Second Turkey Grand National Assembly began its work by opening; Mustafa Kemal was re-elected as the Speaker of the Assembly.

Just before the opening of the parliament, Mustafa Kemal announced that Anatolia and Rumelia Defense Law Society would turn into a People's Party. This first political party of the new Turkish state was officially established on 9 September, and on September 11, Mustafa Kemal was elected president. October 6, 1923 Sukru Nail (Gökberk Pasha entered the troops to Istanbul in command. By a decision of the Assembly taken October 13, 1923 Ankara was declared capital of the Turkish Empire. This decision Great Britain, France, Italy as well if they react Grand National Assembly of Turkey He did not stop practicing his decision.

Announcement of the Republic and Reactions

According to the War of Independence Constitution of 1921 prepared under the conditions brought by the government system, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey chooses among its individual ministers and the ministers directly responsible to the parliament was happening. There is no prime minister, one of the ministers led the meetings. This system of parliamentary government operated without any major disruption during the War of Independence. But in the new period, it often caused government crises that took a long time to resolve. On the other hand, the absence of a presidential institution in the constitution was also a problem. Therefore, a radical change was required in the constitution.

When a government crisis that broke out on 25 October 1923 could not be resolved, Mustafa Kemal put in practice a thought he had created long ago. 29 October 1923 Grand National Assembly of Turkey was declared a republic by Mustafa Kemal's proposal. Immediately after the election made this decision taken unanimously by Mustafa Kemal he was again unanimously elected the first president of the Republic of Turkey.

Pro-reignist circles, who responded to the proclamation of the Republic with a reaction, embraced the caliphate as the only basis. Those who were against the Republic started to gather around the caliph. Caliph Abdulmecid also began to see himself increasingly strong, although he was chosen as a caliph on condition that he was not involved in state affairs and dealing with religious affairs only, he was in the opposite direction. While it was determined that he would only bear the title of "Caliph of Muslims", Abdulmecid Efendi used adjectives such as "Khan" and "Prophet Caliph". He also acted like a head of state and performed Friday prayers with a great ceremony.

Meanwhile, Refet (Bele) Pasha, the representative of the "National Government" in Istanbul, supported the caliph with his attitude. Rauf (Orbay) Bey and Dr., who opposed the proclamation of the Republic. Some of Mustafa Kemal's old friends, like Adnan (Adıvar), were taking the stance. Conservative deputies in the parliament were working to give the caliph political power. They started to show the caliph as the head of the assembly and the state, and the assembly as the advisory body of the caliph.

However, Mustafa Kemal and his friends caliphate, in front of Turkey's secular content and social transformation is essential for the modernization they see as the biggest obstacle. Furthermore, the basic existence of the Republic of Turkey is "popular sovereignty" icon of the principle of the sovereignty of God "caliphate" was inconsistent. For the development of the new Republic, the caliphate had to be abolished after the reign. With the effect of the developing events, the caliphate was lifted with a law enacted on March 3, 1924. Thus, the first step was taken to secularism, which means separation of religion and state affairs. With another law issued on the same day, the Deputy of Şeriye and Evkaf (Ministry of Religious Affairs and Foundations), which regulates all kinds of religious affairs and checks whether the state's transactions are in accordance with religion, was abolished. Another step towards secularism was taken with the law of Unification of Education, which was issued on the same day. (Schools providing religious education and madrasas were separate institutions in the State of Jsman. The state could not control religious education institutions. On the other hand, many minority schools were also acting on their own. With the law enacted, all educational institutions were attached to the Ministry of Education (Ministry of Education).

The 1921 Constitution, prepared in the extraordinary conditions of the War of Independence, was a constitution of revolution. However, with the proclamation of the Republic, conditions had changed and a new phase of transformations had been entered. Now he needed a new constitution in Turkey. Turkey April 20, 1924, a new constitution after long discussions in the National Assembly was adopted. This constitution also included Mustafa Kemal's principle “Domination is unconditionally in the nation”.
Upon the abolition of the Sultanate and the understanding that the old social order would be eliminated with the proclamation of the Republic, intense resistance against Mustafa Kemal and his friends had begun. The focus of the resistance was generally religious and pro-sultan circles. In addition, disagreements appeared between Mustafa Kemal and some of his former friends. Rauf (Orbay) Bey, Refet (Bele) Pasha, Kâzım Karabekir, Ali Fuat (Cebesoy) Pasha and Dr. People like Adnan (Adıvar) opposed the proclamation of the Republic and the abolition of the caliphate. Backed by former Unionists and supporters of the sultanate and caliphate, they eventually broke from Mustafa Kemal's circle and stood before him. Rauf Bey and his friends resigned from the Republican People's Party and established the Progressive Republican Party on 17 November 1924. Mustafa Kemal welcomed the establishment of the Progressive Republican Party as a step towards transition to multi-party democracy. However, the circles that claimed the new party embarked on a violent campaign against the Republic.

On February 13, 1925, Sheikh Said started an uprising in the east while this tense weather was riding. The government has walked on this action, which has been directed to the Republic in a hard and determined manner. In some places, while the mobilization decision was taken, the Takrir-i Sükün Law (Dirlik regularity law) was enacted and the Independence Courts started to function.

After the revolt was suppressed at the end of April, the government closed some of the newspapers and magazines in Istanbul that protested against the Republic with the authority it received from the Law of Takrir-i Sükün. The Progressive Republican Party was then closed on 5 June 1925 on the grounds that it fueled religious reaction in the country. On 14 June 1926, an assassination attempt against Mustafa Kemal in Izmir was launched against the Republican forces. Those who planned the assassination were arrested and 15 people who were found guilty at the end of the trial were hanged.

Contemporary Right to Turkey

Mustafa Kemal had determined the principles of the new Republic and the line that he would develop, and in this direction he had to break down the obstacles. However, a series of social and economic transformations had to take place in order to achieve the contemporary western civilization it had intended. This radical transformation known as Ataturk Revolution or Revolution was an inevitable necessity for modern and civilized new Turkey.

Attempts to establish a secular society order are of great importance in the preparation of the prerequisites for the transformations Mustafa Kemal aims to achieve. With a law enacted on 30 November 1925, a new step was taken in line with secularism by closing lodges and lodges. The lodges and lodges, the places where various orders in Islam gathered, turned away from their aims and turned into the focus of religious opposition to the Republic. The ownership rights of the owners of these closed places were not touched. In addition, those used as mosques or masjids were preserved as they were. The word “The religion of the Turkish State is Islam” in the Constitution was removed from the constitution in 1928. On February 5, 1937, the process was completed by adding the state to the secular constitution.

The new state, whose political structure was a secular republic, was inevitable to have a proper legal system. It was unthinkable that a secular state had a legal system based on religious foundations. At the end of the works carried out for this purpose, a law based on Swiss civil law was prepared and put into effect on October 4, 1926. According to the Turkish Civil Code, equality between men and women was ensured, women had the same rights as men in daily life, and “marital marriage” was made compulsory for family unity. The Law of Obligations, Trade and Penalty, which was adopted in the same year, was also aimed at rearranging the legal system according to the western example.

Mustafa Kemal, the Republic was seen as a contemporary take of the people's external appearance in Turkey. On August 24, 1925, on his trip to Kastamonu and İnebolu, he showed the panama hat at the crowd that welcomed him and said, “We must be civilized people in every respect. Our idea, our mentality will be civilized from top to bottom. Civilized and international clothing is a worthy outfit for our nation, we will wear it ”. In his words, he started modernization in clothing. On November 25, 1925, under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal, the hat law was enacted, and the gown and the turban were prohibited to be worn, except for the clergy.

Another area where it was necessary to harmonize with the contemporary world was the calendar and measurement units used. The Islamic calendar and clock, in which the moons were determined by the movement6 of the Moon, made the relations with the outside world difficult. On December 26, 1925, a legal calendar and international clock system were adopted by a law. The week holiday was taken from Friday to Sunday. In 1931, the units of measurement and weight were changed and meter and weight systems were accepted instead of arch and okka.
Republican People's Party II. The Grand Congress was held in Ankara on 15-20 October 1927. Mustafa Kemal made a political breakdown of the War of Independence and the first four years of the Republic and explained the development line of the Republic in the speech, which he read at this meeting.

Undoubtedly, one of the most important and most difficult breakthroughs to be implemented by Mustafa Kemal is the acceptance of the new Turkish alphabet. It was very difficult to learn to read and write in the Arabic alphabet. This situation prevented the development of the education level in the country. A special committee established on the orders of Mustafa Kemal prepared a Turkish alphabet based on the Latin alphabet. 1 In November 1928, Mustafa Kemal, Turkey Grand National Assembly in the opening speech of the "Great Turkish nation's effort shortest path from ignorance but less easy to wake up their beautiful language can be peeled off with such a noble means. This literacy key is only the Turkish alphabet taken from the Latin basis. ” The new Turkish alphabet was adopted with a law issued the same day.

Mustafa Kemal wanted the Republic he founded to be democratic and to have a multi-party life. The presence of only Republican People's Party lawmakers in the assembly prevented the government from being inspected and criticized. A second when faced with many complaints against the government on trips to the country. he decided to establish a political party. To this end, he commissioned Fethi (Okyar) Bey to establish a political party. Thus, the Free Republican Party was established on August 12, 1930. Mustafa Kemal did not interfere with the program of the new party that was established, but only as a prerequisite that no radical transformations were made. In the new party program, he stated that he adopted secular thought and that he was attached to the Republic. However, the party organization soon fell into the hands of the Republican and anti-secularist, pro-sultans. In response to this situation, Fethi Bey and his friends closed the party on November 17, 1930. A few days later, the reactionaries, who found courage with the establishment of the Free Republican Party, rebelled in Menemen on December 23, 1930. Here they killed a reserve officer named Kubilay. The army suppressed the event; the criminals were tried and punished in the military court.

Mustafa Kemal was the opinion that the newly established Republic of Turkey must be based on Turkish nationalism. He founded the Turkish Historical Research Society on 15 April 1931 in order to develop and spread the awareness of the nation underlying this nationalism. This institution, which was later called the Turkish Historical Society, started work on the nation's past.

Everyone in the country spoke Turkish, but when the work was translated into written language, a mixture of Arabic, Persian and Turkish was used in Ottoman Turkish. The language of science in madrasahs was Arabic. This situation prevented the development of culture in the country. Mustafa Kemal founded the Turkish Language Research Society on 12 July 1932 with the aim of conducting research to purify Turkish and become a cultural language. This institution, which later became the Turkish Language Association, determined the rules of Turkish. Turkish was used in public correspondence, which everyone could understand.

One of the problems that cause difficulties in daily life was solved by the surname law. With a law enacted on June 21, l93-1, everyone was obliged to take their last name. Turkey Grand National Assembly gave Mustafa Kemal the surname Ataturk unanimously to take someone else's name and forbade it from him.

Lausanne Peace Treaty signed by Turkey had taken place on equal terms with other nations in the civilized world. Atatürk founded the fighting foreign policy principles of the Republic of Turkey "Peace at home, peace in the world" was to explain in words. So proclaimed peace would seek a solution to the problem by deleting the bad memories of the past in Turkey. The Mosul problem that emerged in this period, the Turkish-Greek conflict, the Straits and the Hatay problems caused by the problems in Western Thrace were resolved within the framework of this principle.

In the early years of the Republic, an economic policy prioritizing the private sector was followed in industrialization, taking into account the limitations of the state's economic possibilities. State's economic activities were limited by infrastructure investments and nationalization of foreign-owned companies in Turkey. However, the expected development in the economy could not be achieved. Moreover, Great World Depression of 1930 had a negative impact on Turkey's economy is based on agriculture. This situation revealed the need for the state to play a more important and effective role in economic life. Etatism was adopted as the basic economic policy. Organizations such as Sümerbank and Etibank, which continue their existence today, were created. Five-Year Industrial Plans were prepared and implemented to guide industrialization.

At the end of these intense and corrosive works, Atatürk's health began to deteriorate. Although the symptoms of cirrhosis disease that he caught were seen in 1936, he was able to be put in 'precisely' in March 1938. Despite the efforts of many doctors from home and abroad, the disease progressed rapidly. The trip to the country, which he did not care about the resistance of the doctors, led to further progression of the disease and dropped him to bed. Despite all efforts, he died at the Dolmabahçe Palace in Istanbul on Thursday morning, November 10, 1938 at 9.05. His body was taken to Ankara from Istanbul on 19 November and a temporary ceremony was placed in the Ethnography Museum. On November 10, 1953, his funeral was carried to Anıtkabir in Rasattepe, Ankara.


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